The camp of Treblinka was located 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the Polish capital Warsaw, near the village of Małkinia Górna, 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) from the Treblinka railroad station. It was conveniently located approximately halfway between the Warsaw and Białystok Ghettos. The camp was organized in two subdivisions: Treblinka I and Treblinka II. Treblinka I Treblinka I was a forced labour camp for Poles and Jews located 2 km to the south of the extermination camp. Treblinka I operated between June 1941 and July 23, 1944. In this time half of the 20,000 inmates died from execution, exhaustion, or mistreatment. Treblinka I inmates worked in either the nearby gravel pit or irrigation area. Treblinka II Treblinka II, the extermination camp, was divided into three parts
Before Operation Reinhard, over half a million Jews had been killed by the Einsatzgruppen, mobile extermination units, in territories conquered by the German army. It became evident, however, that they could not handle the millions of Jews that they had concentrated in the ghettos of occupied countries. So Treblinka, along with the other Operation Reinhard camps, were especially designed for the rapid elimination of the Jews in ghettos. Treblinka was ready on 11 July 1942. The deportation of the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July 1942, which was the 9th of Av, Tisha B'Av, according to the Jewish calendar: "According to the SS Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop report, a total of approximately 310,000 Jews were transported in freight trains from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka during the period from 22 July to 3 October 1942.
By 1942, the Nazis had decided to undertake the Final Solution. Operation Reinhard would be the first step in the systematic liquidation of the Jews in Europe; beginning with those within the General Government. Bełżec, Sobibor and Treblinka were created solely to efficiently kill thousands of people. These camps differed from the likes of Auschwitz-Birkenau or Majdanek because these also operated as forced-labour camps.